Draws various types of arrows in a scene.

```
arrow3d(p0 = c(1, 1, 1), p1 = c(0, 0, 0),
barblen, s = 1/3, theta = pi/12,
type = c("extrusion", "lines", "flat", "rotation"),
n = 3, width = 1/3, thickness = 0.618 * width,
spriteOrigin = NULL,
plot = TRUE, ...)
```

## Arguments

- p0
The base of the arrow.

- p1
The head of the arrow.

- barblen
The length of the barbs (in display coordinates).
Default given by `s`

.

- s
The length of the barbs as a fraction of line length. Ignored if `barblen`

is present.

- theta
Opening angle of barbs

- type
Type of arrow to draw. Choose one from the list
of defaults. Can be abbreviated. See below.

- n
Number of barbs.

- width
Width of shaft as fraction of barb width.

- thickness
Thickness of shaft as fraction of barb width.

- spriteOrigin
If arrow is to be replicated as sprites, the origins relative
to which the sprites are drawn.

- plot
If `TRUE`

(the default), plot the object;
otherwise return the computed data that
would be used to plot it.

- ...
Material properties passed to `polygon3d`

, `shade3d`

or `segments3d`

.

## Details

Four types of arrows can be drawn. The shapes
of all of them are affected by `p0`

, `p1`

, `barblen`

,
`s`

, `theta`

, material properties
in `...`

, and `spriteOrigin`

. Other parameters
only affect some of the types, as shown.

`"extrusion"`

(default) A 3-dimensional
flat arrow, drawn with `shade3d`

. Affected by `width`

, `thickness`

and
`smooth`

.

`"lines"`

Drawn with lines, similar to `arrows`

, drawn with `segments3d`

. Affected by `n`

.

`"flat"`

A flat arrow, drawn with `polygon3d`

. Affected by `width`

and `smooth`

.

`"rotation"`

A solid of rotation,
drawn with `shade3d`

. Affected by
`n`

and `width`

.

Normally this function draws just one arrow from
`p0`

to `p1`

, but
if `spriteOrigin`

is given (in any form
that `xyz.coords(spriteOrigin)`

can
handle), arrows will be drawn for each point
specified, with `p0`

and `p1`

interpreted relative to those origins. The
arrows will be drawn as 3D sprites which will
maintain their orientation as the scene is rotated, so this is a good way to indicate
particular locations of interest in the scene.

## Value

If `plot = TRUE`

(the default), this is
called mainly for the side effect of drawing
the arrow; invisibly returns the id(s) of
the objects drawn.

If `plot = FALSE`

, the data that would be
used in the plot (not including material
properties) is returned.

## Author

Design based on `heplots::arrow3d`

, which contains modifications by Michael Friendly
to a function posted by Barry Rowlingson to R-help on 1/10/2010. Additions by Duncan Murdoch.

## Examples

```
xyz <- matrix(rnorm(300), ncol = 3)
plot3d(xyz)
arrow3d(xyz[1,], xyz[2,], type = "extrusion", col = "red")
arrow3d(xyz[3,], xyz[4,], type = "flat", col = "blue")
arrow3d(xyz[5,], xyz[6,], type = "rotation", col = "green")
arrow3d(xyz[7,], xyz[8,], type = "lines", col = "black")
arrow3d(spriteOrigin = xyz[9:12,], col = "purple")
```3D plot