This function converts a description of a space curve into a
object forming a cylindrical tube around the curve.
An n by 3 matrix whose columns are the x, y and z coordinates of the space curve.
The radius of the cross-section of the tube at each point in the center.
The amount by which the polygon forming the tube is twisted at each point.
The local coordinates to use at each point on the space curve. These default to a rotation minimizing frame or Frenet coordinates.
The number of sides in the polygon cross section.
The polygon cross section as a two-column matrix, or
Whether to treat the first and last points of the space curve as identical, and close the curve, or put caps on the ends. See the Details.
Use a rotation minimizing local
TRUE, or a Frenet or user-specified frame if
TRUE, plot the local Frenet coordinates at each point.
TRUE, return the local variables in attribute
Additional arguments to set as material properties.
The number of points in the space curve is determined by the vector lengths in
xyz.coords to convert it to a list. The other arguments
e3 are extended to the same
closed argument controls how the ends of the cylinder are
closed > 0, it represents the number of points of
overlap in the coordinates.
closed == TRUE is the same as
closed = 1. If
closed > 0 but the ends don't actually
match, a warning will be given and results will be somewhat
Negative values of
closed indicate that caps should be put on the
ends of the cylinder. If
closed == -1, a cap will be put on the
end corresponding to
center[1, ]. If
closed == -2, caps
will be put on both ends.
NULL (the default), a regular
sides-sided polygon is used, and
radius measures the
distance from the center of the cylinder to each vertex. If not
sides is ignored (and set internally to
radius is used as a multiplier to
the vertex coordinates.
twist specifies the rotation of the
twist may be vectors, with
values recycled to the number of rows in
section are the same at every point along the
The three optional arguments
determine the local coordinate system used to create the vertices at
each point in
center. If missing, they are computed by simple
e1 should be the tangent coordinate,
giving the direction of the curve at the point. The cross-section of
the polygon will be orthogonal to
e3 are chosen to give
a rotation minimizing frame (see Wang et al., 2008). When it is
e2 defaults to an
approximation to the normal or curvature vector; it is used as the
image of the
y axis of the polygon cross-section.
defaults to an approximation to the binormal vector, to which the
x axis of the polygon maps. The vectors are orthogonalized and
normalized at each point.
"mesh3d" object holding the cylinder, possibly with
"vars" containing the local environment of the function.
Wang, W., Jüttler, B., Zheng, D. and Liu, Y. (2008). Computation of rotation minimizing frames. ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 27, No. 1, Article 2.
# A trefoil knot open3d() theta <- seq(0, 2*pi, length.out = 25) knot <- cylinder3d( center = cbind( sin(theta) + 2*sin(2*theta), 2*sin(3*theta), cos(theta) - 2*cos(2*theta)), e1 = cbind( cos(theta) + 4*cos(2*theta), 6*cos(3*theta), sin(theta) + 4*sin(2*theta)), radius = 0.8, closed = TRUE, color = "green") shade3d(addNormals(subdivision3d(knot, depth = 2)))