`primitives.Rd`

Adds a shape node to the current scene.

```
points3d(x, y = NULL, z = NULL, ...)
lines3d(x, y = NULL, z = NULL, ...)
segments3d(x, y = NULL, z = NULL, ...)
triangles3d(x, y = NULL, z = NULL, ...)
quads3d(x, y = NULL, z = NULL, ...)
```

- x, y, z
coordinates. Any reasonable way of defining the coordinates is acceptable. See the function

`xyz.coords`

for details.- ...
Material properties (see

`material3d`

),`normals`

,`texcoords`

or`indices`

; see details below.

The functions `points3d`

, `lines3d`

, `segments3d`

,
`triangles3d`

and `quads3d`

add points, joined lines, line segments,
filled triangles or quadrilaterals to the plots. They correspond to the OpenGL types
`GL_POINTS, GL_LINE_STRIP, GL_LINES, GL_TRIANGLES`

and `GL_QUADS`

respectively.

Points are taken in pairs by `segments3d`

, triplets as the vertices
of the triangles, and quadruplets for the quadrilaterals. Colors are applied vertex by vertex;
if different at each end of a line segment, or each vertex of a polygon, the colors
are blended over the extent of the object. Polygons
must be non-degenerate and quadrilaterals must be entirely
in one plane and convex, or the results are undefined.

The appearance of the new objects are defined by the material properties.
See `material3d`

for details.

For triangles and quads, the normals at each vertex may be specified
using `normals`

. These may be given in any way that would be
acceptable as a single argument to `xyz.coords`

.
These need not match the actual normals to the polygon:
curved surfaces can be simulated by using other choices of normals.

Texture coordinates may also be specified. These may be given in
any way that would be acceptable as a single argument to
`xy.coords`

, and are interpreted in terms
of the bitmap specified as the material texture, with `(0, 0)`

at the lower left, `(1, 1)`

at the upper right. The texture
is used to modulate the color of the polygon.

All of these functions support an argument called
`indices`

, which allows vertices (and other attributes)
to be re-used, as they are in objects created by `mesh3d`

and related functions. This is
intended to be used on smooth surfaces, where each shared
vertex has just one value for normals, colors and texture
coordinates.

For shapes with flat-looking faces (e.g. polyhedra like `cube3d`

),
the vertices **must** be duplicated
to be rendered properly.

Each function returns the integer object ID of the shape that
was added to the scene. These can be passed to `pop3d`

to remove the object from the scene.

```
# Show 12 random vertices in various ways.
M <- matrix(rnorm(36), 3, 12, dimnames = list(c('x', 'y', 'z'),
rep(LETTERS[1:4], 3)))
# Force 4-tuples to be convex in planes so that quads3d works.
for (i in c(1, 5, 9)) {
quad <- as.data.frame(M[, i + 0:3])
coeffs <- runif(2, 0, 3)
if (mean(coeffs) < 1) coeffs <- coeffs + 1 - mean(coeffs)
quad$C <- with(quad, coeffs[1]*(B - A) + coeffs[2]*(D - A) + A)
M[, i + 0:3] <- as.matrix(quad)
}
open3d()
# Rows of M are x, y, z coords; transpose to plot
M <- t(M)
shift <- matrix(c(-3, 3, 0), 12, 3, byrow = TRUE)
points3d(M)
lines3d(M + shift)
segments3d(M + 2*shift)
triangles3d(M + 3*shift, col = 'red')
quads3d(M + 4*shift, col = 'green')
text3d(M + 5*shift, texts = 1:12)
# Add labels
shift <- outer(0:5, shift[1, ])
shift[, 1] <- shift[, 1] + 3
text3d(shift,
texts = c('points3d', 'lines3d', 'segments3d',
'triangles3d', 'quads3d', 'text3d'),
adj = 0)
```3D plot

rgl.bringtotop()