These functions draw axes, boxes and text outside the range of the data.
title3d are the higher level functions;
normally the others need not be called directly by users.
axes3d(edges = "bbox", labels = TRUE, tick = TRUE, nticks = 5, box = FALSE, expand = 1.03, ...) box3d(...) title3d(main = NULL, sub = NULL, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL, zlab = NULL, line = NA, level = NA, floating = NULL, ...) axis3d(edge, at = NULL, labels = TRUE, tick = TRUE, line = 0, pos = NULL, nticks = 5, ...) mtext3d(text, edge, at = NULL, line = 0, level = 0, floating = FALSE, pos = NA, ...)
a code to describe which edge(s) of the box to use; see Details below
whether to label the axes, or (for
labels to use
whether to use tick marks
suggested number of ticks
draw the full box if
"bbox" axes are used
how much to expand the box around the data
the main title for the plot
the subtitle for the plot
the axis labels for the plot
the "line" of the plot margin to draw the label on, and "level" above or below it
which mode of axis labels? One of
may also be used in
See Details for how these are handled.
the position at which to draw the axis or text
the text to draw
the value of a coordinate at which to draw the axis or labels.
The rectangular prism holding the 3D plot has 12 edges. They are identified
using 3 character strings. The first character (`x', `y', or `z') selects
the direction of the axis. The next two characters are each `-' or `+',
selecting the lower or upper end of one of the other coordinates. If only
one or two characters are given, the remaining characters normally default to `-' (but with
mtext3d(..., floating = TRUE) the default is `+'; see below).
edge = 'x+' draws an x-axis at the high level of y and the
low level of z.
axes3d uses the
bbox3d function to draw the axes.
The labels will move so that they do not obscure the data. Alternatively,
a vector of arguments as described above may be used, in which case
fixed axes are drawn using
As of rgl version 0.106.21, axis drawing has changed
significantly. Text drawn in the margins
adapt to the margins (see
floating parameters will be recorded
properties for the object.
floating = FALSE, they will be drawn on the
floating = TRUE, they will
move as the axis labels move when the scene is rotated.
The signs on the edge specification are interpreted as
agreeing with the axis ticks `+' or disagreeing `-'.
"x++" will draw text on the x axis
in the same edge as the ticks, while
"x--" will draw
on the opposite edge.
The final possible value for
NA, which reproduces legacy rgl
this case the labels are not tied to the bounding box,
so they should be drawn last, or they could appear inside
the box, overlapping the data.
floating = NULL (the default)
indicates the main title
and subtitle will be fixed while the axis labels will be
floating. The default locations for title and subtitle
line = 2 and
level = 2 on edges
respectively. The axis labels float at
line = 4 and
level = 1 on the same edge as the ticks.
at parameter in
axis3d is the location
of the ticks, defaulting to
at parameter is the location
on the specified axis
at which to draw the text, defaulting to the middle of the
line parameter is the line counting out
from the box in the same direction as the axis ticks,
level is the line out in the orthogonal
direction. The ticks run from
line = 0 to
line = 1, and the
tick labels are drawn at
line = 2. Both are drawn at level 0.
pos parameter is only supported in legacy mode. If it is a numeric vector of length 3,
the direction of the axis and the tick marks, and the values of the
other two coordinates in
pos determine the position.
level parameter is ignored in legacy mode.
floating = TRUE or
floating = FALSE mode,
there are 3 special values for the
at parameter: it may
to the bottom, middle or top of the given axis respectively.
mtext3d is a wrapper for
that sets the
properties. In fact, these properties can be set for many
kinds of objects (most kinds where it would make sense),
with the effect that the object will be drawn
in the margin, with
x coordinate corresponding to
y corresponding to
These functions are called for their side effects. They return the object IDs of objects added to the scene.
open3d() points3d(rnorm(10), rnorm(10), rnorm(10)) # First add standard axes axes3d() # and one in the middle (the NA will be ignored, a number would # do as well) axis3d('x', pos = c(NA, 0, 0)) # add titles title3d('main', 'sub', 'xlab', 'ylab', 'zlab') rgl.bringtotop() open3d() points3d(rnorm(10), rnorm(10), rnorm(10)) # Use fixed axes axes3d(c('x', 'y', 'z')) # Put 4 x-axes on the plot axes3d(c('x--', 'x-+', 'x+-', 'x++')) axis3d('x', pos = c(NA, 0, 0)) title3d('main', 'sub', 'xlab', 'ylab', 'zlab')